Water extractable organic carbon and nitrogen and their stable isotopes from long-term experiment in a Japanese rice paddy

Toan Nguyen-Sy, Weiguo Cheng, Julien Guigue, Samuel Munyaka Kimani, Wisnu Aji Wibowo, Keitaro Tawaraya, Toru Watanabe, Ji Wu, Xingkai Xu

Abstract


Hot water- and water-extracted organic matter was extracted from soil samples collected after a 31-year long-term experiment which aimed to assess the effect of different fertilization strategies (inorganic fertilizers and organic matters) commonly used for paddy rice cultivation in Yamagata, northeastern Japan. The ratio of soil to extracted water was 2:3. The amounts of hot water-extracted organic carbon and nitrogen (HWEOC and HWEN) at 80 oC and 16 hours, water-extracted organic carbon and nitrogen (WEOC and WEN) at room temperature, and their δ13C and δ15N were measured from the five fertilizer treatment plots as [1) PK, 2) NPK, 3) NPK + 6 Mg ha-1 rice straw (RS), 4) NPK + 10 Mg ha-1 rice straw compost (CM1), and 5) NPK + 30 Mg ha-1 rice straw compost (CM3)], for surface (0-15 cm) and subsurface (15-25 cm) layers. HWEOC and WEOC accounted for an average of about 1.51 and 0.66% of SOC, while HWEN and WEN accounted for an average of about 1.09 and 0.40% of soil TN, respectively. About 90% of the extracted N was organic form among all treatments. The values of δ13C for HWEOC and WEOC ranged from -28.2 to -26.5‰ and from -28.3 to -27.0‰, similar to the original rice straw and rice straw compost, and lower than the value of original soil at -22.5‰. The values of δ15N of HWEN, WEN and bulk soil ranged from 0.8 to 3.8‰, from 1.0to 4.0‰, and from 0.8 to 2.8‰, respectively. It was clear that δ15N decreased in RS but increased in CM3 treatments. Our results indicated that the amounts of hot water- and water-extracted organic matter were affected by long-term application of inorganic fertilizers and organic matters remarkably. However, the values of δ13C for HWEOC and WEOC were not different among 5 treatments, but values of δ15N of HWEN and WEN were affected by RS and CM3 applications clearly.

Keywords


δ13C, δ15N, hot water-extracted matter, long-term experiment, rice paddy.

Full Text:

Full Paper

References


REFERENCES

Azuma H, Uezono I, Nohara S, Takahashi S, Kato N. 2015. Rapid method for estimating nitrogen in air-dried paddy soils based on the total organic carbon (TOC) extracted from oven-dried soils shaken in water. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 86: 188–197 (in Japanese with English summary).

Chantigny MH. 2003. Dissolved and water-extractable organic matter in soils: a review on the influence of land use and management practices. Geoderma. 113: 357–380.

Chantigny MH, Harrison-Kirk T, Curtin D, Beare M. 2014. Temperature and duration of extraction affect the biochemical composition of soil water-extractable organic matter. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 75: 161–166.

Cheng W, Padre AT, Sato C, Shiono H, Hattori S, Kajihara A, Aoyama M, Tawaraya K, Kumagai K. 2016. Changes in the soil C and N contents, C decomposition and N mineralization potentials in a rice paddy after long-term application of inorganic fertilizers and organic matter. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 62: 212–219.

Cheng W, Padre AT, Shiono H, Sato C, Nguyen-Sy T, Tawaraya K, Kumagai K. 2017. Changes in the pH, EC, available P, SOC and TN stocks in a single rice paddy after long-term application of inorganic fertilizers and organic matters in a cold temperate region of Japan. Journal of Soils and Sediments. 17: 1834–1842

Cheng W, Sakai H, Yagi K, Hasegawa T. 2010. Combined effects of elevated [CO2] and high night temperature on carbon assimilation, nitrogen absorption, and the allocations of C and N by rice (Oryza sativa L.). Agricultural and Forest Meteorology. 150: 1174-1181.

Cheng W, Yagi K, Akiyama H, Nishimura S, Sudo S, Fumoto T, Hasegawa T, Hartley AE, Megonigal JP. 2007. An empirical model of soil chemical properties that regulate methane production in Japanese rice paddy soils. Journal of Environmental Quality. 36: 1920–1925.

Cheng W, Yagi K, Xu H, Sakai H, Kobayashi K. 2005. Influence of elevated concentrations of atmospheric CO2 on CH4 and CO2 entrapped in rice-paddy soil. Chemical Geology. 218: 15-24.

Choi WJ, Kwak JH, Lim SS, Park HJ, Chang SX, Lee SM, Arshad MA, Yun SI, Kim HY. 2017. Synthetic fertilizer and livestock manure differently affect δ15N in the agricultural landscape: a review. Agriculture, Ecosystems & Environment. 237: 1–15.

Curtin D, Wright CE, Beare MH, McCallum FM. 2006. Hot water-extractable nitrogen as an indicator of soil nitrogen availability. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 70: 1512–1521.

Ghani A, Dexter M, Perrott KW. 2003. Hot-water extractable carbon in soils: a sensitive measurement for determining impacts of fertilisation, grazing and cultivation. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 35: 1231–1243.

Guigue J, Lévêque J, Mathieu O, Schmitt-Kopplin P, Lucio M, Arrouays D, Jolivet C, Dequiedt S, Prévost-Bouré NC, Ranjard L. 2015. Water-extractable organic matter linked to soil physico-chemistry and microbiology at the regional scale. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 84: 158–167.

Guigue J, Mathieu O, Lévêque J, Mounier S, Laffont R, Maron PA, Navarro N, Chateau-Smith C, Amiotte-Suchet P, Lucas Y. 2014. A comparison of extraction procedures for water-extractable organic matter in soils. European Journal of Soil Science. 65: 520–530.

Hopkins DW, Waite IS, McNicol JW, Poulton PR, Macdonald AJ, O'Donnell AG. 2009. Soil organic carbon contents in long-term experimental grassland plots in the UK (Palace Leas and Park Grass) have not changed consistently in recent decades. Global Change Biology. 15: 1739–1754.

Kanamori T. 2000. Present state of long-term field experiments on successive application of chemical fertilizers and composts as organic matters in national and prefectural research stations. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 71: 286–293 (in Japanese).

Körschens M. 2006. The importance of long-term field experiments for soil science and environmental research – A review. Plant, Soil and Environment. 52: 1–8.

Kusumawardani PN, Cheng W, Purwanto BH, Utami SNH. 2017. Changes in the soil pH, EC, available-P, DOC and inorganic-N after land use change from rice paddy in northeast Japan. Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management. 5: 53–61.

JSSSPN (Japanese Society of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition). 1986. Soil Normal Analysis Methods, Hakuyusha Press, Tokyo (in Japanese).

Makarov MI, Malysheva TI, Menyailo OV, Soudzilovskaia NA, Van Logtestijn RSP, Cornelissen JHC. 2015. Effect of K2SO4 concentration on extractability and isotope signature (δ13C and δ15N) of soil C and N fractions. European Journal of Soil Science. 66: 417–426.

Moriizumi M, Matsunaga T. 2011. Molecular weight separation of hot-water extractable soil organic matter using high-performance size exclusion chromatography with chemiluminescent nitrogen detection. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 57: 185–189.

Moriizumi M, Uezono I, Matsunaga T, Kato N. 2015. Decomposition characteristics of hot-water-extractable soil organic nitrogen during aerobic soil incubation. Japanese Journal of Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 86: 8–16 (in Japanese).

Nakajima M, Cheng W, Tang S, Hori Y, Yaginuma E, Hattori S, Hanayama S, Tawaraya K, Xu X. 2016. Modeling aerobic decomposition of rice straw during off-rice season in an Andisol paddy soil in a cold temperate region, Japan: Effects of soil temperature and moisture. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 62: 90–98.

Nishida M, Iwaya K, Sumida H, Kato N. 2007. Changes in natural 15N abundance in paddy soils under different, long-term soil management regimes in the Tohoku region of Japan. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 53: 310–317.

Rasmussen PE, Goulding KWT, Brown JR, Grace PR, Janzen HH, Körschens M. 1998. Long-term agroecosystem experiments: assessing agricultural sustainability and global change. Science. 282: 893–896.

Richter DD, Hofmockel M, Callaham MA, Powlson DS, Smith P. 2007. Long-term soil experiments: keys to managing earth's rapidly changing ecosystems. Soil Science Society of America Journal. 71: 266–279.

Rillig MC, Caldwell BA, Wosten HAB, Sollins P. 2007. Role of proteins in soil carbon and nitrogen storage: controls on persistence. Biogeochemistry. 85: 25–44.

Ros GH, Hoffland E, van Kessel C, Temminghoff EJM. 2009. Extractable and dissolved soil organic nitrogen – A quantitative assessment. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 41: 1029–1039.

Sparling G, Vojvodic-Vukovic M, Schipper LA. 1998. Hot-water-soluble C as a simple measure of labile soil organic matter: the relationship with microbial biomass C. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 30: 1469–1472.

Shiga H, Ohyama N, Maeda K, Suzuki M. 1985. An evaluation of different organic materials based on their decomposition patterns in paddy soils. Bulletin of the National Agriculture Research Center, No. 5, pp. 1–19 (In Japanese with English summary).

van Ginkel JH, Merckx R, van Veen JA. 1994. Microbial biomass method based on soluble carbon in the soil solution. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 26: 417–419.

Werth M, Kuzyakov Y. 2010. 13C fractionation at the root-microorganisms-soil interface: A review and outlook for partitioning studies. Soil Biology and Biochemistry. 42: 1372–1384.

Yamagata Agricultural Research Station. 1983. Yamagata Agricultural Research Station Annual Report. No. 59-5, pp. 42–52 (in Japanese).

Yoneyama T, Kouno K, Yazaki J. 1990. Variation of natural 15N abundance of crops and soils in Japan with special reference to the effect of soil conditions and fertilizer application. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 36: 667–675.

Yoneyama T, Nakanishi Y, Morita A, Liyanage BC. 2001. δ13C values of organic carbon in cropland and forest soils in Japan. Soil Science and Plant Nutrition. 47: 17–26.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.20527/jwem.v6i2.176

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License Hasil gambar untuk crossref
Journal of Wetlands Environmental Management is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License. ISSN: 2354-5844 (print version) and 2477-5223 (electronic version). joomla site stats View My Stats